10 Jan · Tue 2012
Florida Employment Law Webinar -- February 3, 2012
10 Oct · Mon 2011
Is Pregnancy Discrimination Illegal Under Florida Law? Courts Are Divided.
The Florida Civil Rights Act, which. among other things, prohibits sex discrimination in employment, does not prohibit pregnancy discrimination, according to a recent decision by a federal judge in Florida.
If you think that sounds crazy, think again. The court’s decision in Duchateau v. Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc., Case No. 10-6-0712-CIV-ZLOCH/ROSENBAUM (S.D. Fla., October 4, 2011) is supported by logic and precedent. However, courts are divided on this issue.
Here’s the logic. Congress enacted Title VII in 1964, thereby prohibiting sex discrimination in employment. Five years later, the Florida legislature passed the Florida Human Relations Act, which prohibited discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin."In 1972, the Florida legislature amended the Florida Human Relations Act to ensure "freedom from discrimination because of sex." In 1976, the Supreme Court ruled in General Electric Co. v. Gilbert, 429 U.S. 125 (1976) that Title VII did not prohibit pregnancy discrimination. Because Florida law provides that a Florida statute patterned after a federal law will be given the same construction as the federal courts give the federal act, it was clear after Gilbert that the Florida Human Relations Act did not prohibit pregnancy discrimination, either. Subsequent amendments to the Florida Human Relations Act (including changing its name to the Florida Human Rights Act ("FHRA") did not add pregnancy as a protected status, despite the Supreme Court’s decision in Gilbert.
In 1978, in response to Gilbert, Congress enacted the Pregnancy Discrimination Act ("PDA"), which amended Title VII by re-defining sex discrimination to include discrimination on the basis of pregnancy. Yet Florida did not amend the FHRA in the years following the enactment of the PDA. In 1991, Florida’s First District Court of Appeal in O’Loughlin v. Pinchback, 579 So. 2d 788, 791-92 (Fla. 1st DCA 1991), concluded that the FHRA did not prohibit pregnancy discrimination.
In 1992, the Florida legislature amended the FHRA, including changing its name to the Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992. Still, despite O’Loughlin, these amendments did not modify the statute’s references to sex discrimination or otherwise suggest an intention to prohibit pregnancy discrimination. The language of the FCRA prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex continued to include the pre-PDA language of Title VII. Thus, the Florida Civil Rights Act does not prohibit pregnancy discrimination.
That’s the logic, anyway. In Carsillo v. City of Lake Worth, 995 So. 2d 1118 (Fla. 4th DCA 2008), Florida’s Fourth District Court of Appeals reached a different conclusion. Noting that when Congress enacted the PDA, it "expressed its disapproval of both the holding and the reasoning of Gilbert," the Fourth DCA concluded that "Congress made clear in 1978 that its intent in the original enactment of Title VII in 1964 was to prohibit discrimination based on pregnancy as sex discrimination." Because the FCRA is patterned after Title VII, the Fourth District reasoned, "it follows that the sex discrimination prohibited in Florida since 1972 included discrimination based on pregnancy[.]"
I don’t believe Carsillo makes sense. Whether Congress intended to prohibit pregnancy discrimination when it enacted Title VII would seem to be irrelevant in light of the U.S. Supreme Court’s holding in Gilbert that Title VII did not prohibit pregnancy discrimination. The Supreme Court is the final word on this issue. That’s why it took an amendment to Title VII, the PDA, to prohibit pregnancy discrimination under Title VII. Because the Florida statute was patterned after the pre-PDA version of Title VII, and was never amended to prohibit pregnancy discrimination, it would seem to follow that the Florida Civil Rights Act does not prohibit pregnancy discrimination.
That is not to suggest that women are without recourse in Florida if they are discriminated against because of their pregnancy: they can always sue under Title VII. But until the Florida Supreme Court decides the issue, whether a woman can state a cause of action for pregnancy discrimination under the Florida Civil Rights Act will depend on the court in which she litigates her case. In addition to the split among the First and Fourth district courts of appeal, federal courts in Florida are also divided on this issue. Compare Boone v. Total Renal Labs., Inc., 565 F. Supp. 2d 1323, 1326-27 (M.D. Fla. 2008) (holding that the FCRA does not provide a claim for pregnancy discrimination), Whiteman v. Cingular Wireless, LLC, Case No. 04-80389-CIV-PAINE, D.E. 114 at 11 (S.D. Fla. May 3, 2006) (same), aff’d, 273 F. App’x 841 (11th Cir. 2008) (per curiam), and Frazier v. T-Mobile USA, Inc., 495 F. Supp. 2d 1185, 1187 (M.D. Fla. 2003) (same), with Constable v. Agilysys, Inc., 2011 WL 2446605, at *6 (M.D. Fla. June 15, 2011) (concluding that the FCRA does provide a cause of action for pregnancy discrimination), and Terry v. Real Talent, Inc., 2009 WL 3494476, at *2 (M.D. Fla. Oct. 27, 2009) (same).
30 Sep · Fri 2011
Title VII Claims Barred by Res Judicata Effect of Arbitrator’s Civil Service Ruling
An arbitrator’s decision upholding an employee’s termination under civil service rules barred, under the doctrine of res judicata, the employee’s subsequent Title VII claims, according to a recent decision by a Florida federal judge in Palmer v. Miami-Dade County, Florida (Case No. 10-23478-CIV-COOKE/TURNOFF (S.D. Fla., April 25, 2011). The decision sheds light on when Title VII claims are barred by earlier state court proceedings.
The facts of the case are as follows. Defendant, Miami-Dade County, employed Plaintiff, Sebrina Palmer, as a police sergeant. On August 22, 2008, Defendant terminated Plaintiff's employment. Plaintiff is an African-American female. Defendant stated, as grounds for her termination, that Plaintiff falsified payroll records. Plaintiff challenged her termination pursuant to Miami-Dade County Code § 2-47, the County's classified civil service hearing process. An arbitrator was appointed. After a two-day hearing, he wrote a report concluding that Plaintiff violated County rules by failing to take reasonable steps to ensure that the payroll documents she submitted were accurate. The arbitrator recommended that Plaintiff's termination be upheld. The County Manager sustained the arbitrator’s decision and confirmed Plaintiff's dismissal. Plaintiff appealed the County Manager's final order to the Appellate Division of the Circuit Court for the Eleventh Judicial Circuit of Florida. The Appellate Division, upon review of the entire administrative record, issued a mandate affirming the County Manager's decision.
Plaintiff subsequently brought suit in federal court, alleging that her termination was racially and sexually discriminatory in violation of Title VII. Defendant moved for summary judgment, arguing, among other things, that Plaintiff’s claim was barred by res judicata, otherwise known as claim preclusion.
The court agreed. The court began its analysis by noting that the doctrine of res judicata may bar Title VII claims where a state court affirms an administrative agency's decision, and two criteria are met: (1) the state court would grant preclusive effect to the judgment, and (2) the state proceedings comport with the procedural requirements of the Fourteenth Amendment's Due Process Clause. The court held that the first criterion was met because Florida courts grant preclusive effect to quasi-judicial administrative decisions. The court held that the second criterion was met because state proceedings comport with the procedural requirements of the Fourteenth Amendment's Due Process Clause. Under Miami-Dade County Rules §§ 2-47 and 2-47.1, a dismissed employee is entitled to notice, an opportunity for a full hearing, compulsory process and representation by counsel before the hearing examiner, with layers of administrative and judicial review.
Turning to Florida law, the court held that the doctrine of res judicata applies if four conditions exist: (1) identity of the thing sued for; (2) identity of the cause of action; (3) identity of the parties; and (4) identity of the quality in the person for or against whom the claim is made. When the four identities are present, res judicata attaches to all matters which were or could have been determined.
The outcome of the case turned mainly on the second factor: Were Plaintiff’s administrative proceeding and her Title VII action the “same” cause of action for res judicata purposes?
The court held that they were: Plaintiff's administrative proceeding and this federal action consist of the same cause of action for purposes of res judicata analysis under Florida law. “The determining factor in deciding whether the cause of action is the same is whether the facts or evidence necessary to maintain the suit are the same in both actions.” Albrecht, 444 So. 2d at 12. In the administrative proceeding, Plaintiff challenged the propriety of her dismissal. Here, she also argues that Defendant improperly dismissed her. In both proceedings, Plaintiff must proffer evidence regarding her dismissal. In both proceedings, Plaintiff argues that she was subject to disparate treatment, and therefore her dismissal was improper. Thus, the facts and evidence are the same in both causes of action -- Plaintiff must proffer evidence and show facts to support her contention that Defendant improperly dismissed her because it had a discriminatory intent and the County's reasons for dismissing her were pretextual and illegitimate. The court went on to hold that Plaintiff could, and did, litigate the issue of disparate treatment in her administrative proceeding. Thus, res judicata barred the re-litigation of her claims in U.S. District Court.
But what happens when the opposite situation presents itself, i.e. when a plaintiff litigates her Title VII claim in federal court, and then attempts to litigate a similar discrimination claim under state law?
According to Florida’s Fourth District Court of Appeals, the state law claim may or may not be barred by res judicata, depending on whether the plaintiff also litigated state law claims in federal court.
In Andujar v. Nat'l Prop. & Cas. Underwriters, 659 So. 2d 1214 (Fla. 4th DCA 1995), the Fourth DCA held that a federal court’s dismissal on the merits of Title VII claim did not bar a claim arising from the same core of operative facts asserted under the Florida Human Rights Act. The court reasoned that because the plaintiff did not allege any state law claims in her first action, and thus did not seek to have the federal district court assert jurisdiction over such claims under its pendent jurisdiction, the federal and state claims were separate and distinct for purposes of federal claim preclusion rules.
Less than a year later, however, the Fourth DCA considered a similar situation in Dalbon v. Women's Specialty Retailing Group, 674 So. 2d 799, 801 (Fla. 4th DCA 1996), and reached a different result. In Dalbon, the plaintiff, in addition to asserting a Title VII claim, had asserted a state law claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress, which the federal court dismissed on summary judgment. The federal court subsequently dismissed the Title VII claim after a trial on the merits. Plaintiff subsequently filed state law claims in state court for negligent misrepresentation and negligent supervision and retention. On appeal, the Fourth DCA held that the new claims were barred by res judicata. The court reasoned that “[h]aving presented one of her state law claims arising from the termination of her employment to the federal court, plaintiff cannot now attempt to raise new state law claims in state court arising from the same facts and from the same primary rights and duties as were litigated previously.”
05 May · Thu 2011
Florida's Minimum Wage Rises on June 1
Florida's minimum wage will rise to $7.31 per hour on June 1, 2011. Currently, employers in Florida are required to pay the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Employers must pay the higher of the two wage levels.
For tipped employees, because Florida's Constitution caps the tip credit at $3.02, employers must pay a direct wage of $4.29 (i.e. $7.31 - $3.02) effective June 1.
You can read more details here.
Update: A colleague asked me how this happened mid-year, in light of the fact that the Florida Minimum Wage Act provides that minimum wage increases are to go into effect on January 1. The answer, I have since learned, is that a Florida judge ruled that Florida's Agency for Workforce Innovation had miscalculated the minimum wage, and ordered it to be increased.
22 Feb · Tue 2011
Florida Employment Law 101: The Basics
For Florida employers, or those employers thinking of employing workers in Florida, sometimes it makes sense to go back to the basics. With that in mind, here's a brief summary of some of the major employment laws in Florida. This list is not exhaustive but does provide a good overview of the law in this area. My thanks go out to associate Teresa Maestrelli, who put this together.
Wage and Hour Law
· The minimum wage applies to all employees in the state who are covered by the federal minimum wage. On July 24, 2009 the new Federal minimum wage of $7.25 replaced Florida’s minimum wage.
· The definitions of “employer”, “employee”, and “wage” for state purposes are the same as those established under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).
· Employees who are not paid the minimum wage may bring a civil action against the employer or any person violating Florida’s minimum wage law. The state attorney general may also bring an enforcement action to enforce the minimum wage.
Wage for Tipped Employees
· Employers of “tipped employees” who meet eligibility requirements for the tip credit under the FLSA may count tips actually received as wages under the FLSA.
· The employer must pay “tipped employees” a direct wage. The direct wage is calculated as equal to the minimum wage ($7.25) minus the 2003 tip credit ($3.02), or a direct hourly wage of $4.23 as of July 24, 2009.
· Employers are required to post a minimum wage notice in a conspicuous and accessible place in each establishment where employees are employed. This poster requirement is in addition to the federal requirement to post a notice of the federal minimum wage.
· Employers who hire minors must display a poster in a conspicuous place on the property or place of employment notifying them of the Child Labor Law.
· Employers are required to keep waiver authorizations, proof of age documentation, and proof of exemption from minor status for all employees who are under 18. These records must be maintained for the duration of the minor’s employment.
· Employers are not required by law to have permission from the parents to employ their minor child.
· "Work Permits" and/or "Working Papers" are not required in Florida and are not issued by either the schools or any governmental agency in Florida.
· Minors are limited in the hours they may work to permit them to attend and complete their educational responsibilities.
· Minors may work no more than 4 consecutive hours without a 30-minute uninterrupted break.
· Minors are exempt from the hour limitations of the Child Labor Law if they have been married, graduated from an accredited high school or hold a high school equivalency diploma, served in the military, have been authorized by a court order, or been issued a partial waiver by the public school or the Child Labor Program.
· Minors are limited in the types of occupations they may perform for safety reasons.
· Minors have the right to request that the Child Labor Office exempt them from parts of the Child Labor Law.
· Employment of minors in violation of Florida child labor laws may result in fines up to $2,500 per offense and/or be guilty of a second-degree misdemeanor.
Employment Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Laws
· The Act applies to employers with 15 or more employees and prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicap, or marital status.
· Complaints of discrimination must be filed with the Florida Commission on Human Relations (FCHR) within 365 days of the date of the alleged discriminatory incident.
· The Act contains an anti-retaliation provision which protects employees who have opposed any unlawful discrimination practice and/or who have made a charge, testified, assisted, or participated in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing.
· Florida’s private sector whistleblower statute protects employees who object to, or refuse to participate in, an activity, policy, or practice of the employer which is in violation of a law, rule, or regulation.
· Florida’s public sector whistleblower act protects government employees and employees of government contractors who object in specified ways to wrongdoing in the workplace.
· An employer is not required to pay an employee for responding to a jury summons or for serving on a jury.
· An employer may not discharge, penalize, threaten or otherwise coerce an employee because the employee receives or responds to a summons or serves as a juror.
· Florida's military affairs law protects the reemployment rights of National Guard members returning from state active duty. The law prohibits an employer from discharging a returning member for the one-year period following the date the member returns to work, except for cause.
· At the same time, however, the law provides certain exceptions under which employers are not required to allow such members to return to work.
· The law applies where the federal Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA) does not apply.
19 Jan · Wed 2011
Florida's Mini-Cobra Statute -- It's Up to the Employee